A wide range of published evidence relating to differentiated service delivery is available. A summary of published evidence for differentiated ART delivery along with links to the publications is available here. The content below has been grouped thematically and includes other published literature such as commentaries, country implementation, costing studies and more.  

Commentaries, editorials and viewpoints

Ehrenkranz P, Grimsrud A, Holmes CB, Preko P, Rabkin M.  Expanding the vision for differentiated service delivery: a call for more inclusive and truly patient-centered care for people living with HIV.  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 Oct 23. doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000002549. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33136818.

Rosen S, Grimsrud A, Ehrenkranz P, Katz I. Models of service delivery for optimizing a patient's first six months on antiretroviral therapy for HIV: an applied research agenda. Gates Open Res. 2020 Jul 29;4:116. doi: 10.12688/gatesopenres.13159.1. PMID: 32875281; PMCID: PMC7445417.

Georgetown University The Policy Lab. Access During COVID-19: National Policies on Multi-month Supplies of HIV Medications.

Wilkinson L, Grimsrud A. The time is now: expedited HIV differentiated service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Int AIDS Soc. 2020;23(5):e25503.

Ford N, Geng E, Ellman T, Orrell C, Ehrenkranz P, Sikazwe I, et al. Emerging priorities for HIV service delivery. PLoS Med. 2020;17(2):e1003028.

Ehrenkranz P, Grimsrud A, Rabkin M. Differentiated service delivery: navigating the path to scale. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2019;14(1):60-5.

Reidy WJ, Rabkin M, Syowai M, Schaaf A, El-Sadr WM. Patient-level and program-level monitoring and evaluation of differentiated service delivery for HIV: a pragmatic and parsimonious approach is needed. Aids. 2018;32(3):399-401.

Grimsrud A, Barnabas RV, Ehrenkranz P, Ford N. Evidence for scale up: the differentiated care fresearch agenda. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 4):22024.

Grimsrud A, Bygrave H, Doherty M, Ehrenkranz P, Ellman T, Ferris R, et al. Reimagining HIV service delivery: the role of differentiated care from prevention to suppression. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016;19(1):21484.

Campion EW. Treating millions for HIV--the adherence clubs of Khayelitsha. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(4):301-3.

Specific populations

Barnabas RV, Szpiro AA, van Rooyen H, Asiimwe S, Pillay D, Ware NC, et al. Community-based antiretroviral therapy versus standard clinic-based services for HIV in South Africa and Uganda (DO ART): a randomised trial. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(10):e1305-e15.

Wilkinson L, Siberry GK, Golin R, Phelps BR, Wolf HT, Modi S, et al. Children and their families are entitled to the benefits of differentiated ART delivery. J Int AIDS Soc. 2020;23(4):e25482.

Grimsrud AT, Pike C, Bekker LG. The power of peers and community in the continuum of HIV care. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(2):e167-e8.

Grimsrud A, Bygrave H, Wilkinson L. The Case For Family-Centered Differentiated Service Delivery for HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018;78 Suppl 2:S124-s7.

Reif LK, McNairy ML, Lamb MR, Fayorsey R, Elul B. Youth-friendly services and differentiated models of care are needed to improve outcomes for young people living with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2018;13(3):249-56.

Srivastava M, Sullivan D, Phelps BR, Modi S, Broyles LN. Boosting ART uptake and retention among HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants: the promise of innovative service delivery models. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018;21(1).

Macdonald V, Verster A, Baggaley R. A call for differentiated approaches to delivering HIV services to key populations. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 4):21658.

Mirkovic KR, Rivadeneira ED, Broyles LN. Children and alternative service delivery models: a case for inclusion.  Aids. 30. England2016. p. 2569-70.

Costing and cost-effectiveness

Note: Costing studies for specific differentiated models of ART delivery are included within the evidence summaries here. Below are general costing studies related to differentiated service delivery.  

Larson BA, Pascoe SJ, Huber A, Long LC, Murphy J, Miot J, et al. Will differentiated care for stable HIV patients reduce healthcare systems costs? J Int AIDS Soc. 2020;23(7):e25541.

Forsythe S, Lee B, Tarimo K, Silvan B, Balampama M, Chitty J, et al. HIV treatment support services in Tanzania: a cost and efficiency analysis at facility and community levels. Afr J AIDS Res. 2019;18(4):306-14.

Roberts DA, Tan N, Limaye N, Irungu E, Barnabas RV. Cost of Differentiated HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Delivery Strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019;82 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S339-s47.

Barker C, Dutta A, Klein K. Can differentiated care models solve the crisis in HIV treatment financing? Analysis of prospects for 38 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 4):21648.

Vaikath M, Khan S, Mafara E, Dlamini N, Dlamini P, Ndzinisa N, et al. Patient out of pocket expenditures for ART in Swaziland.  CROI2017; Seattle, USA2017.

Phillips AN, Cambiano V, Nakagawa F, Bansi-Matharu L, Sow PS, Ehrenkranz P, et al. Cost Effectiveness of Potential ART Adherence Monitoring Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0167654.

Phillips A, Shroufi A, Vojnov L, Cohn J, Roberts T, Ellman T, et al. Sustainable HIV treatment in Africa through viral-load-informed differentiated care. Nature. 2015;528(7580):S68-76.

Other publications including pre-prints (not peer-reviewed) and protocols (studies underway)

Long L, Kuchukhidze S, Pascoe S, Nichols BE, Fox MP, Cele R, et al. Retention in Care and Viral Suppression in Differentiated Service Delivery Models for HIV Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Rapid Systematic Review. Reprints2020.

Huber A, Pascoe S, Nichols BE, Long L, Kuchukhidze S, Phiri B, et al. Differentiated service delivery models for HIV treatment in Malawi, South Africa, and Zambia: A landscape analysis. medRxiv. 2020:2020.08.25.20181818.

Amstutz A, Lejone TI, Khesa L, Muhairwe J, Nsakala BL, Tlali K, et al. VIBRA trial - Effect of village-based refill of ART following home-based same-day ART initiation vs clinic-based ART refill on viral suppression among individuals living with HIV: protocol of a cluster-randomized clinical trial in rural Lesotho. Trials. 2019;20(1):522.

Hoffman R, Bardon A, Rosen S, Fox M, Kalua T, Xulu T, et al. Varying intervals of antiretroviral medication dispensing to improve outcomes for HIV patients (The INTERVAL Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2017;18(1):476

Ssempijja V, Nason M, Nakigozi G, Ndyanabo A, Gray R, Wawer M, et al. Adaptive Viral Load Monitoring Frequency to Facilitate Differentiated Care: A Modeling Study From Rakai, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(4):1017-21.

Ssonko C, Gonzalez L, Mesic A, da Fonseca MS, Achar J, Safar N, et al. Delivering HIV care in challenging operating environments: the MSF experience towards differentiated models of care for settings with multiple basic health care needs. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 4):21654.

Mutasa-Apollo T, Ford N, Wiens M, Socias ME, Negussie E, Wu P, et al. Effect of frequency of clinic visits and medication pick-up on antiretroviral treatment outcomes: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(Suppl 4):21647